Beijing Travel Guide logo (Beijing).

Chinese Culture

Philosophical Ideas

Beijing Travel Guide logo (China).

Note : this section will be expanded over the coming months.

Other Philosophical Ideas

There are a number of ancient philosophical ideas that link with each other in various ways and permeate chinese culture.

Feng Shui

Feng Shui (pronounced 'fung shway') literally 'Wind Water' is the ancient Chinese concern for placement and arrangement of a space to achieve harmony with the environment. For a place to have 'good Feng Shui' is for it to be in harmony with nature, whereas to have 'bad Feng Shui' is to be incongruous with nature.

Feng Shui draws together a wide mix of geographical, religious, philosophical, mathematical, aesthetic and astrological ideas. Sometimesintuitive and derivable from common sense and our feeling of what is natural.

Underlying the practical guidelines of feng shui is the theory of Qi. The 'Book of Changes' ('I Ching') and 'The Five Elements are also sometimes brought into play.


Nature is generally held to be a discrete organism that breathes qi (a kind of life force or spiritual energy). The details about the metaphysics of what nature is, what Qi is and does, and what breath consists in vary. However, it is not generally understood as physical, but neither is it meant to be metaphorical although it can be thought of that way.

The Five Elements

The Qi energy can be found in various forms identified as Wu Xing (5 Phases) - Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal and Water. These energy phases are so-named because they tend to behave somewhat like the physical entities.

The notion of the Five Elements is found in Chinese medicine and Feng Shui.

Do not confuse the 5 elements of Chinese Metaphysics with the 5 elements of Greek philosophy (Wind, Water, Earth, Ether and Sky).

Yin Yang

This is the idea that opposites both contain each other and give rise to each other. These ideas are captured beautifully in the symbolisation of ... Further, that we need to take a holistic view and seek balance between opposites. Any two opposites are defined by reference to each other and in a dynamic relationship.

Although the origins probably predate Taoism, the idea is elaborated quite explicitly in the Tao Te Ching, if not by name.

Yin : Moon, water, cold, feminine, dark, passive force, ...

Yang : Sun, fire, hot, masculine, bright, active force, ...

Everything has an opposite, and opposites are relative, not absolute. They are interdependent.

There is always a trace of one in the other, like stars in the night sky. There can not be absolute darkness or absolute brightness, coldness or whatever.

One can transform into the other. For example, night becomes day becomes night. And if we look from space, we see that night and day actually coexist!

There are four possible imbalances: excess Yin, excess Yang, Yin deficiency, and Yang deficiency. They can again be seen as a pair: by excess of Yin there is a Yang deficiency and vice versa. The imbalance is also a relative factor: the excess of Yang 'forces' Yin to be more 'concentrated'. The darker the night, the brighter the stars look.

Yin / Yang is an important concept in chinese medicine. Symptoms categorised as yin would be treated by foods that are said to yang.

The 'I Ching' ('Book of Changes')

The 'I Ching' attempts to elaborate on the nature of the universe.

  • Simplicity. The fundamental law underlying everything in the universe is actually utterly plain and simple, no matter how abstruse or complex some things may appear to be.
  • Variability. Everything in the universe is continually changing. By comprehending this one may realize the importance of flexibility in life and cultivate the proper attitude for dealing with a multiplicity of diverse situations.
  • Persistency. While everything in the universe seems to be changing, there is a persistent principle, a central rule, which does not vary with space and time.
  • This book is based on 64 diagrams that represent all the different ways to combine six 0s and 1s (yin or yang). For example, 101101. An unbroken line can be used to represent Yang and a broken line Yin. This gives 64 hexagrams that can be used as an oracle.

    Each hexagram can be analyzed into an upper group of three lines and a lower group of three lines. These are called the upper and lower 'trigrams'. Discussion of the hexagrams involves considering 'young' and 'old' Yin or Yang. 'Old' indicates that the Yin or Yang is about to change to the opposite.

    The 'I Ching' can be read here (external link).

    Chinese Inventions

    Chinese Language

    The Three Pillars of Chinese Philosophy

    Other Philosophical Idea
    Yin Yang
    I Ching
    Five Elements
    Feng Shui

    Other Ancient Cultural Aspects
    Dragon and Pheonix

    The Three Bases of the Arts

    Chinese Opera

    Tea, Food and Dining

    Chinese Medicine
    Ping Pong

    Chinese Materials

    Arts and Crafts
    Paper Cuts


    Garden Arts

    Trade and Modernity

    Place Names

    Beijing Guide

    Share this page